Excerpt for Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 Pad A Historic American Engineering Record, Details of the Apollo-Saturn V and Space Shuttle Rocket Launch Facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida by , available in its entirety at Smashwords

Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 Pad A Historic American Engineering Record, Details of the Apollo-Saturn V and Space Shuttle Rocket Launch Facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

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Launch Complex 39 A Historic American Engineering Record

Aeronautics and Space Report of the President Fiscal Year 2016 Activities

1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

2. Department of Defense

3. Federal Aviation Administration

4. Department of Commerce

5. Department of the Interior

6. Federal Communications Commission

7. U S Department of Agriculture

8. National Science Foundation

9. Department of State

10. Department of Energy

11. Smithsonian Institution

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(John F. Kennedy Space Center) HAER FL-8-11-F

Location: East end of Saturn Causeway

John F. Kennedy Space Center * Cape Canaveral Brevard County * Florida

U.S.G.S. 7.5. minute False Cape, Florida, quadrangle, Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates: 17.538713.3164403 (center of the launch pad)

Date of Construction: 1963-1965; 1975-1978 (modifications for Space Shuttle Program)

Architect: Giffels and Rossetti, Inc. of Detroit, Michigan (original); Reynolds, Smith and Hills of Jacksonville, Florida (modifications)

Builder: Blount Brothers Corp. of Birmingham, Alabama (original); Various (modifications)

Present Owner: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899-0001

Present Use: Aerospace Facility-vehicle launch pad

Significance: The "Missile Launch Complex 39A Site" was originally listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) on May 24, 1973, for its association with the Man in Space Program. It was reevaluated in 1996 in the context of the Apollo Program, ca. 1961 through 1975, and on January 21, 2000, the newly defined Launch Complex 39: Pad A Historic District was listed in the NRHP. The Launch Complex 39: Pad A Historic District has since gained importance in the context of the Space Shuttle Program, ca. 1969 to 2010. As currently defined, the historic district contains twenty-one contributing resources and twenty-three noncontributing resources within its boundary. It is considered eligible for listing in the NRHP under Criteria A and C in the areas of Space Exploration and Engineering, respectively. Because it has achieved significance within the past 50 years, Criteria Consideration G applies.

The period of significance for the Launch Complex 39: Pad A Historic District, with regards to the Space Shuttle Program, is from 1980, when the first Space Shuttle vehicle arrived at the launch pad, through 2010, the designated end of the Space Shuttle Program. The Space Shuttle Program is the longest running American space program to date. Unlike the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs, the emphasis was on cost effectiveness and reusability, as well as the construction of a space station. The district is one of two sites at the Kennedy Space Center specially designed and constructed to launch the Space Shuttle vehicle; the other site is the Launch Complex 39: Pad B Historic District, also listed in the NRHP on January 21, 2000. It has facilitated nationally significant events associated with space travel, and has been integral to the launching of the Space Shuttle. As such, the Launch Complex 39: Pad A Historic District is of exceptional importance to the Space Shuttle Program.

Report Prepared by:

Patricia Slovinac, Architectural Historian

Archaeological Consultants, Inc. (ACI)

8110 Blaikie Court, Suite A

Sarasota, Florida 34240

Date: August 2010

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ACI Archaeological Consultants, Inc.

APU Auxiliary Power Unit

CCAFS Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

ECS Environmental Control System

ET External Tank

ET/IT External Tank/Intertank

FSS Fixed Service Structure

GH2 Gaseous Hydrogen

GHe Gaseous Helium

GOX Gaseous Oxygen

GN2 Gaseous Nitrogen

HER Hoist Equipment Room

ISS International Space Station

JSC Johnson Space Center

KSC Kennedy Space Center

LC Launch Complex

LH2 Liquid Hydrogen

LOX Liquid Oxygen

MLP Mobile Launcher Platform

MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NRHP National Register of Historic Places

OAA Orbiter Access Arm

OMBUU Orbiter Mid-Body Umbilical Unit

OMS Orbital Maneuvering System

OV Orbiter Vehicle

PCR Payload Changeout Room

PGHM Payload Ground Handling Mechanism

RCS Reaction Control System

RSS Rotating Service Structure

SRB Solid Rocket Booster

SSME Space Shuttle Main Engine

STS Space Transportation System

U.S. United States

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NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

The John F. Kennedy Space Center is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) primary center for launch and landing operations, vehicle processing and assembly, and related programs in support of manned space missions. It is located on the east coast of Florida, about 150 miles south of Jacksonville, and to the north and west of Cape Canaveral, in Brevard and Volusia Counties, and encompasses almost 140,000 acres. The Atlantic Ocean and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are located to the east, and the Indian River is to the west.

Following the launch of Sputnik I and Sputnik II, which placed Soviet satellites into Earth's orbit in 1957, the attention of the American public turned to space exploration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower initially assigned responsibility for the U.S. Space Program to the Department of Defense. The Development Operations Division of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, led by Dr. Wernher von Braun, began to focus on the use of missiles to propel payloads, or even a man, into space. The United States successfully entered the space race with the launch of the Army's scientific satellite Explorer I on January 31, 1958, using a modified Jupiter missile named Juno I.1

With the realization that the military's involvement in the space program could jeopardize the use of space for peaceful purposes, President Eisenhower established NASA on October 1, 1958 as a civilian agency with the mission of carrying out scientific aeronautical and space exploration, both manned and unmanned. Initially working with NASA as part of a cooperative agreement, President Eisenhower officially transferred to NASA a large portion of the Army's Development Operations Division, including the group of scientists led by Dr. Werner von Braun, and the Saturn rocket program.

NASA became a resident of Cape Canaveral in 1958 when the Army Missile Firing Laboratory, then working on the Saturn rocket project under the direction of Dr. Kurt H. Debus, was transferred to the agency. Several Army facilities at CCAFS were given to NASA, including various offices and hangars, as well as Launch Complexes (LC) 5/6, 26, and 34. The Missile Firing Laboratory was renamed Launch Operations Directorate and became a branch office of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. As the responsibilities of the Launch Operations Directorate grew, NASA granted the launch team increased status by making it a field center called the Launch Operations Center, and separating it from MSFC.

In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy charged NASA and the associated industries to develop a space program that would surpass the Soviet program by landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade. With the new, more powerful Saturn V rocket and the stepped-up launch schedule, it was apparent that a new launch complex was required, and CCAFS, with twenty-two launch complexes, did not have the space for new rocket facilities. Merritt Island, an undeveloped area west and north of the Cape, was selected for acquisition, and in 1961, the Merritt Island Launch Area (which, with the Launch Operations Center would become KSC) was born. In that year, NASA requested from Congress authority to purchase 80,000 acres of property, which was formally granted in 1962. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers acted as agent for purchasing land, which took place between 1962 and 1964. NASA began gaining title to the land in late 1962, taking over 83,903.9 acres by outright purchase, which included several small towns, such as Orsino, Wilson, Heath and Audubon; many farms; citrus groves; and several fish camps. Negotiations with the State of Florida provided submerged lands, resulting in the acquisition of property identified on the original Deed of Dedication. Much of the State-provided land was located south of the Old Haulover Canal and north of the Barge Canal.

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